Unmaking Food History

first_imgFrom a 4000 year old Harappan brinjal dish to a 400 year old roast chicken from Akbar’s court Related Itemslast_img

India is Shutting Down Its Tax Havens

first_imgThe Indian government had over the years quite intentionally opened up Singapore and Mauritius as jurisdictions that are attractive to channel funds into India. Related Itemslast_img

Funds Vexed by Tax in India

first_imgIndia’s resolve to collect capital-gains taxes from foreign investors, while laudable in its motivation, stands on wobbly operational legs. Related Itemslast_img

Music Therapy

first_imgWhile music cannot substitute medication or treatment, it has a therapeutic effect and can help patients relax. Related Itemslast_img

White House wants $1 billion for Vice President Biden’s cancer moonshot. Where will it come from?

first_imgThe White House’s announcement yesterday that it wants to spend $1 billion to jump-start Vice President Joe Biden’s cancer moonshot is music to the ears of cancer researchers. Unclear, however, is how much existing money will be reshuffled at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to support this year’s moonshot activities, and whether Congress will agree to new funding that the White House has proposed for 2017.Although researchers are “very excited and enthusiastic” about the $1 billion proposal, they have questions about exactly where the money will come from, says Jon Retzlaff, managing director for science policy and government affairs for the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A fact sheet says the White House plans to spend $195 million on “new cancer activities” at NIH in the current 2016 fiscal year, which began in October 2015. Presumably, most of the spending will occur at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), which got $264 million in new money this year (part of a $2 billion overall increase for NIH). NCI already funds the research areas that the fact sheet describes—cancer prevention, early detection, immunotherapy, tumor genomics, data sharing, and pediatric cancer. The money appears to be “a shot in the arm” for these existing programs, Retzlaff says.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)But one worry for biomedical researchers is that plumping up certain NCI programs partway into the fiscal year will force the institute to divert funds from other programs. For example, the pot of money allocated for investigator-initiated cancer research could grow more slowly; the fact sheet also does not mention what is envisioned for NCI’s cancer centers. Exactly what the moonshot could mean for nonmoonshot activities may become clearer on 11 February at the next meeting of NCI’s National Cancer Advisory Board (NCAB).Meanwhile, Biden plans to propose continuing the moonshot’s financial momentum in the White House’s FY 2017 budget request, due out 9 February. The White House says it will include a request to steer $75 million to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for moonshot activities, and $680 million for NIH. That could mean a 13% budget boost for NCI.The plan could be a hard sell in Congress, however, Retzlaff notes. That’s because it calls for using “mandatory funds” to pay for those increases. Mandatory funds aren’t funneled through the regular annual appropriations process. Instead, the money comes from dedicated sources approved by Congress—for example, the 21st Century Cures Act, a House bill to speed the development of new medicines, would give NIH $8.75 billion in new funding over 5 years by selling oil from the U.S. strategic petroleum reserve.Lawmakers generally don’t like mandatory spending because it preempts their oversight, Retzlaff notes. Another concern is what will happen if such funding ends after a few years. “There could be a cliff” after which the new research programs suddenly lose support, Retzlaff says. AACR’s hope, Retzlaff says, is that any new moonshot funding be sustained into 2018, 2019, and beyond. “We’d love to see a 10-year plan,” he says.One program outlined in the White House spending plan clearly is new: an FDA Virtual Oncology Center of Excellence that will “leverage the combined skills of regulatory scientists and reviewers” to speed the development of cancer drugs, screening, and diagnostics. Friends of Cancer Research, a patient advocacy group, took credit for that idea, writing that it will “break down decades’ old silos within FDA and make for a more efficient agency.” The plan also describes a Vice President’s Exceptional Opportunities in Cancer Research Fund that will fund “high-risk, high-return research” identified with help from researchers, advocates, and industry.Yesterday, Biden held the first meeting of an interagency task force to plan the moonshot. And NCAB will soon form a blue-ribbon panel to offer guidance.last_img read more

‘Stuttering’ mice may help unravel mystery of human speech disorder

first_imgMice supposedly don’t speak, so they can’t stutter. But by tinkering with a gene that appears to be involved in human speech, researchers have created transgenic mice whose pups produce altered vocalizations in a way that is similar to stuttering in humans. The mice could make a good model for understanding stuttering; they could also shed more light on how mutations in the gene, called Gnptab, cause the speech disorder.Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in the world, affecting nearly one out of 100 adults in the United States. But the cause of the stammering, fragmented speech patterns remains unclear. Several years ago, researchers discovered that stutterers often have mutations in a gene called Gnptab. Like a dispatcher directing garbage trucks, Gnptab encodes a protein that helps to direct enzymes into the lysosome—a compartment in animal cells that breaks down waste and recycles old cellular machinery. Mutations to other genes in this system are known to lead to the buildup of cellular waste products and often result in debilitating diseases, such as Tay-Sachs. How mutations in Gnptab causes stuttered speech remains a mystery, however.To get to the bottom of things, neuroscientist Terra Barnes and her team at Washington University in St. Louis in Missouri produced mice with mutation in the Gnptab gene and studied whether it affected the ultrasonic vocalizations that newly born mouse pups emit when separated from their mothers. Determining whether a mouse is stuttering is no easy task; as Barnes points out, it can even be difficult to tell whether people are stuttering if they’re speaking a foreign language. So the team designed a computer program that listens for stuttering vocalization patterns independent of language. The program listens to the number of vocalizations per minute and the length of pauses during bouts of vocalization. In humans, it can distinguish a person who stutters from a control subject 79% of the time.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The program showed that mice with mutant copies of the Gnptab gene had less frequent vocalizations and more long pauses than normal mice. However, the afflicted mice produced all of the same sounds in the same proportion as their wild-type siblings, indicating they were still physically capable of normal vocalizations. And an array of cognitive and physical challenges showed that the stuttering mice were otherwise healthy. That suggests that despite the vast differences in complexity between human and mouse vocalizations, mutated copies of Gnptab have similar effects, the researchers write today in Current Biology, which makes the mouse a potentially valuable model for studying stuttering. “We can throw every drug in the book at it,” Barnes says. “We can try to figure out which part of the brain is affected.”“I think it’s further support that the genes in this pathway do have something to do with speech,” says Stuart Kornfeld, a cell biologist at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, who was not involved in the study.But how a single mutation in a common cellular housekeeping gene can result in stuttered speech remains unknown. One possibility is that the neurons involved in speech are particularly sensitive to the waste accumulation caused by missing lysosomal enzymes, Kornfeld says. But there’s no evidence for this yet, he adds; in fact, scientists don’t exactly know which neurons are involved in speech.The buildup of undigested waste products from a malfunctioning lysosome system is just one possible cause, says Tim Holy at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri, one of the paper’s co-authors. “Another possibility is that these genes have another function that has not yet been recorded in any other context.”last_img read more

Even young rainforests can help save the climate

first_imgThe logging of old-growth rainforest in the tropics—often to create cattle pastures—is a major blow to the climate. Cutting down the forests releases lots of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere—and of course, the trees aren’t absorbing it anymore. But that’s not the end of the story. When pastures are abandoned (often after a few years), trees start to come back, forming second-growth forests. These forests might lack the massive trees and rich biodiversity of an old-growth forest, but they can still play an important role in helping regulate climate. Robin Chazdon, an ecologist at the University of Connecticut, Storrs,  and the International Institute of Sustainability in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, (who was profiled last August in Science), and a team of 60 researchers first estimated the extent of second-growth forests across 43 regions of Latin America, and then built a model to estimate their ability to store carbon. It turned out that second-growth forests made up a sizeable fraction: In 2008, 17% of forest was 20 years old or younger, and another 11% was between 20 and 60 years old (above). If all this forest continues to grow for the next 4 decades, their model showed, it would store 8.5 petagrams of carbon, 71% of that in Brazil alone, as the team reports today in Science Advances. That’s equivalent to the carbon emissions from all fossil fuels throughout Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. The results suggest that second growth forests—along with halting deforestation—can provide major help for meeting climate goals.last_img read more

Scientists use carbon nanotubes to make the world’s smallest transistors

first_img As computing has moved into the nanoscopic realm, it’s getting harder and harder for engineers to follow Moore’s Law, which says, essentially, that the processing speed of computer chips should double every year or two. But IBM researchers have just reported a new way to keep Silicon Valley on the right side of at least this law, using a delicate material to make microchips’ basic processing elements—transistors—smaller and faster than ever before. For decades, computing speed has increased as silicon transistors have shrunk, but they’re currently near their size limits. So scientists have been experimenting with carbon nanotubes, rolled-up sheets of carbon atoms just 1 nanometer, or a billionth of a meter, in diameter. But difficulties working with the material have meant that, for optimal performance, nanotube transistors have to be even larger than current silicon transistors, which are about 100 nanometers across. To cut that number down, a team of scientists used a new technique to build the contacts that draw current into and out of the carbon nanotube transistor. They constructed the contacts out of molybdenum, which can bond directly to the ends of the nanotubes, making them smaller. They also added cobalt so the bonding could take place at a lower temperature, allowing them to shrink the gap between the contacts. Another advance allowed for practical transistors. Carrying enough electrical current from one contact to another requires several nanotube “wires.” The researchers managed to lay several parallel nanotubes close together in each transistor. The total footprint of the transistor: just 40 nanometers, they report today in Science. Electrical tests showed their new transistors to be faster and more efficient than ones made of silicon. Silicon Valley may soon have to make way for Carbon Valley.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) By Matthew HutsonJun. 29, 2017 , 2:00 PM Scientists use carbon nanotubes to make the world’s smallest transistorslast_img read more

Cold War espionage paid off—until it backfired, East German spy records reveal

first_img Cold War espionage paid off—until it backfired, East German spy records reveal Credits: (Graphic) G. Grullón/Science; (Data) A. Glitz and E. Meyersson, 2017 The achievement gap East Germany was far behind the West when it came to economic productivity. But without espionage, that gap would have been some 9.4% bigger for all sectors of the economy (left chart) and 35.1% bigger for computers and electronics (right chart). And if the East didn’t make up for its losses by putting out more patents, the gap in both cases would have been even larger. By Catherine MatacicJul. 31, 2017 , 8:00 AM Deep in debt and struggling to provide for his family, Hans Rehder got an offer he couldn’t refuse: to steal key files from his employer, West German electronics firm Telefunken, for a monthly payoff from East German agents. Soon the former Nazi party member and physicist was on board, and he delivered a staggering volume of material: hundreds of invaluable documents each year, including the complete plans for the radiation-resistant Leopard 1 tank. His side hustle lasted 28 years—from 1957 to 1985—and he was never caught.But although spying clearly paid off for Rehder, economists and historians have long wondered whether industrial espionage is worth it for the country subsidizing all the spying. Now, in the first study of its kind, researchers have analyzed more than 150,000 previously classified documents from the former East German Ministry for State Security (also known as the Stasi) to reach a surprising conclusion: Stealing can boost economic productivity in the short-term, but it cannibalizes long-term investment in research and development.“It’s R&D on cocaine,” says author Erik Meyersson, a political economist at the Stockholm School of Economics. “Maybe you can have a little bit of fun with it, but it’s not good for you in the long run.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Industrial, or economic, espionage has a rich history. It helped the Soviet Union get the atomic bomb in the mid-20th century. In the early 19th century it launched the United States onto the world stage after American agents stole technology—and skilled workers—from factories across Europe. And as far back as the 6th century C.E., it helped the Byzantine Empire break China’s monopoly on silk production, when two Nestorian monks smuggled silkworms out of the Far East. But thanks in part to the very nature of such secrets, no one has ever had a bird’s eye view of how stolen information can affect an entire economic system. Words to spy by East German scientists evaluated the reports sent in by their spies, rating each on a scale of one to five and tagging them with keywords for easier cataloguing. Economists used these keywords—which ranged from fewer than five per report to 145—to figure out what information spies were collecting. IBM computer centers in West Germany—like this one near Stuttgart—were chief targets of East Germany’s industrial spying program.  Meyersson’s opportunity came in 2011, when he stumbled across a news story about Stasi spying, and he sensed there were untapped databases on the topic. Fellow economist—and German speaker—Albrecht Glitz of Pompeu Fabra Univeristy in  Barcelona, Spain, agreed and launched their investigation. He soon called back with good news: “The data is there. All we have to do is go get it.”That was easier said than done. After several years of negotiation, Meyersson and Glitz got their hands on 151,627 dispatches on scientific secrets collected by thousands of spies between 1970 and 1988. The duo couldn’t see the content of the reports, but they could see the metadata, including who collected the information and when, how valuable the information was, and keywords related to each item’s content.They used the 2000 most common keywords—which included terms like “military technology,” “optics,” and “IBM”—to divide the reports into 16 economic sectors, from machine building (23,152 items) to chemicals (33,409 items) to office appliances, computers, and electronics (100,279 items). They then looked at how each of those sectors fared in something called total factor productivity, (TFP) a measure of how efficiently an economy uses its capital equipment—from forklifts to computerized control systems—and labor. (Higher TFP growth is typically associated with innovation.) Finally, they compared growth in TFP for each sector in East and West Germany for every year in the data set.After controlling for the effects of trade and research and development, the team found that economic espionage boosted TFP growth in East Germany, helping it close the gap with West Germany by some 8.6% in 1989, they report in a working paper published by the Institute of Labor Economics, an economics research institute in Bonn, Germany. The effect was especially pronounced in the computing and electronics sector, where espionage reduced the gap between East and West by almost 26%. (The chart below reveals the same gap, but using the TFP difference between West and East Germany—not the TFP difference before and after espionage—as its baseline.)“It’s a very original paper,” says Bart Hobijn, a macroeconomist at Arizona State University in Tempe formerly with the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank in San Francisco, California. “Not only did they have access to the data, but they thought about it very creatively. They are in a sense … going through the back door.” © Leonard Freed/Magnum Photos Credits: (Graphic) G. Grullón/Science; (Data) A. Glitz and E. Meyersson, 2017 Historian Kristie Macrakis of the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, who has spent more than a decade studying Stasi databases—including the one used in the current study—agrees. “I was really excited that someone crunched these numbers,” she says. “They basically quantified what I did [already] in a qualitative way.” Macrakis, who has argued that East German industrial espionage was ultimately a failure, says the next step is to look at how the stolen technology was integrated into individual East German firms, who often requested—and received—the stolen information.Hobijn says that the paper could also be instructive for countries and companies currently engaged in industrial espionage. “If I were running a secret service, I’d like to know what the return is on my effort.” According to the new study, the payoff may have been as high as €4.6 billion for East Germany in 1988, compared with annual spying expenditures of about €6.4 million. Espionage “has a substantial effect,” Hobijn says.But there’s a hidden cost, Meyersson says. Espionage seems to “eat up” investment in research and development. For example, the authors’ model showed that increases in industrial espionage significantly reduced patent applications, a key proxy for research and development. “It’s a way to keep up,” Meyersson says. “It’s not a strategy to become a world leader.”That’s exactly what played out in East Germany, Macrakis says. Despite early successes, including the “reinvention” of polyurethane and the reverse engineering of the “must-have” mainframe computer of the 1960s—the IBM 360—industrial espionage hit a wall in the late 1970s and 1980s. That’s because a new focus on advanced computing—in particular, the country’s quest to create a 1-megabyte memory chip—required orders of magnitude greater investments in human intelligence and embargoed goods. Easy access to secrets had, over time, discouraged both state and private investment in research and development. “East Germany collapsed,” she says. “Maybe they caught up a little bit, but in the end the whole computing thing [at least] was a fiasco.”Perhaps physicist-turned-spy Hans Rehder would have agreed. In a cryptic comment to his case officer, he once asked: “I’m giving you the best technology available, why can’t you use it?”last_img read more

Uganda removes key hurdle to GM crops

first_img Uganda has carried out preliminary studies, including confined field trials, on several engineered crops: bananas resistant to xanthomonas wilt, a lethal infection that is spreading in Africa, cassavas resistant to cassava brown streak disease—a viral scourge that has hit East Africa especially hard—and Water Efficient Maize for Africa, a variety developed by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center that is being field tested in several African countries.So far, just two countries on the continent have commercialized transgenic crops: Sudan, which grows GM cotton, and South Africa, which grows GM cotton, maize, and soybean. ANDREY GUDKOV/Alamy Stock Photo By Christopher BendanaOct. 6, 2017 , 4:14 PM Uganda removes key hurdle to GM cropscenter_img KAMPALA—Biotech researchers here are celebrating the long-awaited passage of a bill this week that clears the way for large-scale field tests and commercial release of genetically modified (GM) crops. Uganda, with several engineered varieties waiting in the wings, is expected to join a handful of other African nations moving quickly to bring homegrown GM foods to the market.Introduced in parliament in 2013, Uganda’s National Biosafety Act lays out a framework for regulating biotechnology, including the creation of a national scientific committee to oversee GM research. Critics argued that the legislation would threaten food security by ceding control of commercial seeds to foreign companies. They also claimed that GM foods would not be palatable, and that the engineered genes might escape into the environment and taint native varieties. Seeking to tamp down concerns, Uganda’s science minister Elioda Tumwesigye said at a press briefing here today that the government would safeguard indigenous crops by banking their seeds. “We may need them in the future as a standing point as we go on modifying,” he said.Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni, who has in the past expressed support for the bill, is expected to sign it into law within a month. “It is a great, great achievement,” says Erostus Nsubuga, a biotechnology entrepreneur working on GM bananas at Agro-Genetic Technologies, a company in Buloba, Uganda.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Hauling bananas to market in Kisoro, Uganda.last_img read more

Watch these whales exfoliate their way to healthy skin—by rubbing on rocks

first_img When marine biologist Sarah Fortune spotted bowhead whales rolling onto their backs in coastal waters near Canada’s Baffin Island several summers ago, she was baffled. The Ph.D. student at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, knew that these arctic mammals rarely hang out in warm, shallow waters. And with few zooplankton around, they couldn’t have been in the bay to eat. So a few years later, Fortune and colleagues returned with a camera-equipped aerial drone to find out more. Their first clue was the whales’ unusual mottled skin and scratches along the length of their bodies. When the drone returned, they had their answer: Video recordings had captured the whales engaging in an impromptu exfoliation session, rubbing their chins, heads, backs, and sides against the large rocks. One bowhead was rubbing away for at least 8 minutes. Together with still images and a skin biopsy, the researchers conclude that these bowhead whales use rocks to rub away sloughing and molting skin, they report today in PLOS ONE. Though this is the first time scientists have seen this behavior in bowheads, other arctic whales—such as belugas—have been seen grooming themselves along abrasive bottom surfaces in Hudson Bay estuaries. One benefit to this annual skin cleansing? It might help the long-lived animals rid themselves of sun-damaged skin and parasites, the researchers say. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) By Roni DenglerNov. 22, 2017 , 2:00 PM Watch these whales exfoliate their way to healthy skin—by rubbing on rockslast_img read more

An ‘epic scientific misadventure’: NIH head Francis Collins ponders fallout from CRISPR baby study

first_imgNational Institutes of Health Director Francis Collins says he has “a hard time seeing many examples” where germline gene editing would be justifiable: “Most of them are pretty far out there.” By Jon CohenNov. 30, 2018 , 11:50 AM An ‘epic scientific misadventure’: NIH head Francis Collins ponders fallout from CRISPR baby study Stephen Voss center_img In 1975, at the behest of its then-director, NIH set up just such a strict independent oversight process for another revolutionary technology that caused equal measures of great promise and deep concern: genetic engineering. The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) initially regulated test tube experiments with bacteria and viruses; its role became particularly important with the advent of gene therapy trials in the 1980s, for which RAC weighed the risks and benefits. Its importance waned as gene therapies—which often use harmless viruses to shuttle healthy genes into cells to override mutated ones—became commonplace and institutional review boards, institutional biosafety commissions, and the Food and Drug Administration began to provide more oversight. Recently, RAC has evaluated so few proposals that some have called for severely limiting its scope.With the international furor about the CRISPR babies, NIH—and its director—may once again have to take a leading role in the oversight of a fraught new technology. ScienceInsider spoke with Collins yesterday. This interview has been edited for brevity and clarity.Q: What should “independent strict oversight” for germline editing intended for reproduction look like?A: How do we have an enterprise that is not just one country at a time, but actually has the opportunity to develop and then enforce some kind of international consensus about where the boundaries should be? Frankly that’s something we’ve never had in bioethics. Is every country going to have to come up its own framework? At the moment that’s sort of what we’ve got. Maybe this is the moment to try to discuss whether there could be a more effective international oversight umbrella, but nobody seems to quite know what that would look like.Q: Should NIH set up a RAC-like oversight for this type of germline editing?A: NIH does embrace the role that we may need to play there, and we are not going to step into the wings and wait for somebody else. We have been restructuring the RAC in a fashion that is trying to make it more suited for the current era. Maybe what we need is a new version of the RAC that allows a public, intense, scientific debate about areas of some scientific potential where there are many unknowns. This would certainly be one of them.Q: Are you concerned, as many people were back in the recombinant engineering days, that if you don’t do something at a federal level, Congress will become more aggressive about policing science?A: I wouldn’t necessarily blame Congress if members felt there was a vacuum and there were serious risks of rogue scientists carrying out experiments that the rest of the world thinks are unethical. Maybe Congress would find it necessary to step in and say, “Oh no you don’t.” In certain ways they already have in this particular area of genome germline editing. There’s a statute that currently prohibits the Food and Drug Administration from even looking at an application that includes human germline modification of an embryo with the intention to reimplant and make a baby. So Congress already has spoken.Q: Do you think there will be a proposal in the near future to do germline editing with embryo implantation in the United States?A: Not while it’s illegal. It would be pretty crazy for someone to propose something at the present time that would be immediately seen as cause for criminal prosecution. Are there examples that could be imagined at some future point where this kind of germline intervention with intention to reimplant would somehow be justifiable on the basis of pressing medical need? I have a hard time seeing many examples of that, and most of them are pretty far out there. But that kind of conversation needs to happen.Q: Science recently published a CRISPR experiment in a dog model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It was done after they were born, so these were somatic, not germline, edits. But germline editing is possible.A: I’d love to see that pursued by somatic gene editing and I don’t think that presents ethical dilemmas. Let’s talk about the germline approach. You’d have to have a circumstance where you knew you had a family at risk. So you’re worried about having an affected boy. How would you go about doing gene editing? Well, you’d have to do in vitro fertilization [IVF], you’d have to do preimplantation genetic diagnosis [PGD] to identify an embryo that has the mutation. You’ll have at that point multiple embryos and there will be amongst them plenty that are unaffected. Why don’t we just reimplant those and you’re done? You have to do PGD in order to get to the point of being able to do germline gene editing, so it’s PGD alone or it’s PGD plus some highly risky procedure.Q: But what if you have a situation where there aren’t any healthy embryos to implant? (As a 2017 U.S. report on human gene editing noted, this can happen if both parents only carry the mutant gene, which is possible with β-thalassemia, or if inheriting only one mutant gene can cause a disease, as happens with adult-onset Huntington disease.)A: Remember, I said there might be some extremely rare, and difficult outlier kind of arguments. And that’s going to drive a decision about doing something that alters the very essence of humanity? I’m sorry, that’s not very compelling. It’s hard to see how reasonable people would say, “Sure, let’s just break down all the barriers that we thought were pretty impenetrable in the name of this thing that might happen three times in the world.”Q: You can’t imagine anything right now where germline gene editing makes any sense?A: I can’t go so far as to say I can’t imagine any, but right now I can’t see it.Q: But at the Hong Kong meeting, George Daley, dean of Harvard Medical School in Boston, explicitly said we need to keep the door open here. And the meeting’s organizing panel, of which he was a member, called for a “translational pathway” for clinical trials of germline engineering.A: I don’t agree with George. I thought what was put forward there, which was kind of ironic given the circumstance, was a subtle shift from, “We don’t believe that the arguments exist to do this right now” to “OK, let’s identify a translational pathway so we can.” I don’t think George is reflecting the consensus of a lot of other people and he took some criticism.Q: Do you think there should be a moratorium on this type of research, given that Daley and others think there could potentially be valid reasons to do it?A: I think effectively we have one. Certainly, in the U.S. it’s not just a moratorium, it’s illegal. That’s the strongest form of a moratorium. And we won’t fund it. [The Dickey-Wicker Amendment forbids NIH from funding this research.] In other countries, especially after this eruption, including in China, it sounds like they’re declaring a moratorium.Q: IVF clinics often don’t receive NIH funding, and they have done all sorts of things that people look askance at. Are you at all concerned about what they might do, given that they’re central to any of this happening?A: It’s a good point. IVF clinics have had a bit of a reputation of being cowboys, and it’s certainly possible that if this kind of rogue behavior was going to happen in the U.S., it would have to involve IVF and therefore those clinics might be significant players. If they chose to go down this road, they’d be bringing on a world of pain in terms of the consequences. I’d hope they wouldn’t be so ignorant not to realize that.Q: Do you think the legal consequences for He should include criminal prosecution?A: I’m hard pressed to say that without knowing more about exactly how he conducted his research, how many people did know about it, and was there a possible wink and a nod from authorities saying, “Well, you probably shouldn’t, but it would be really cool if you did.” I think he did a really bad thing. I think he had a bit of messiah complex that he could save these families from a terrible tragedy of stigma from HIV. But the logic he used to justify [the experiment] in these two little girls is so twisted that it’s really hard to understand.Q: Do you think what he did will have an impact on using gene editing in therapies that alter somatic cells, but not the germ line?A: I do hope that this very visible misadventure does not cause a cloud over the entire area of gene editing for therapeutic benefit. When it comes to somatic applications, I’m extremely excited about the potential to come up with not just treatments, but cures for hundreds and maybe thousands of diseases that currently have no available treatment—and this could be the best hope. If for any reason the noise about this misadventure would result in reduced enthusiasm, including politically or financially, to press forward on those very promising frontiers, that would be a terrible outcome. A “profoundly unfortunate,” “ill-considered,” “epic scientific misadventure” that “flout[ed] international ethical norms” and was “largely carried out in secret” with “utterly unconvincing” justifications. Those are the words in a statement issued by Francis Collins, head of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, in response to the claim by He Jiankui of the Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen, China, that he used CRISPR to genetically modify two embryos, resulting in the recent birth of twin girls.The scathing condemnation from the typically measured NIH chief, who has done landmark genetic research himself, came hours after He first described his work at the second International Summit on Human Genome Editing in Hong Kong, China, on Wednesday. “The need for development of binding international consensus on setting limits for this kind of research, now being debated in Hong Kong, has never been more apparent,” Collins wrote.The next day, the meeting’s prominent organizing committee—convened by academies of science and medicine from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Hong Kong—issued its own statement about what it called He’s “deeply disturbing claim.” It concluded that the risks were still “too great to permit clinical trials of germline gene editing at this time,” but it didn’t call for a moratorium; instead it suggested a responsible way forward to clinical trials of the technique, provided there is “strict independent oversight.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

To halt brain diseases, drugs take aim at protein traffic jams that kill neurons

first_img By Elie DolginJan. 16, 2019 , 2:15 PM TDP-43Nuclear pore To halt brain diseases, drugs take aim at protein traffic jams that kill neurons Fixing traffic jamsThe flow of molecules through pores in the nucleus is key to the health of cells, particularly neurons. Traffic problems may contribute to amyotrophic later- al sclerosis (ALS) and other brain diseases.NormalImportin proteins bring TDP-43and other cargo from the cytoplasmthrough the nuclear pore, whereasexportins take molecules out.ALSIn some ALS cases, abnormal RNAmade by a mutant C9orf72 geneprevents RanGAP from mediatingnuclear import, leading to proteinbuildup in stress granules.ALS + drugA possible drug, KPT-350, impairsthe specific exportin XPO1 and maynormalize nuclear traffic of proteinsor bust up stress granules. C9orf72 RNAKPT-350 V. ALTOUNIAN/SCIENCE KIRSTIN MAULDING RanGAPImportinExportinRan Chris Henderson, Biogen A false-color atomic force micrograph shows the complex pores (green rings) that closely regulate traffic in the cell between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Here’s a drug with a body of rationale, and we’re optimistic about getting this into trials. The team’s result would upend neuroscientists’ understanding of ALS and brain disease in general, and others were on the same trail. In 2015, two more research teams reported that defects in the cell’s nuclear transport system were hallmark features not only of ALS, but also of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), another progressive brain disease caused by C9orf72 mutations. Scientists would soon link dysfunctional trafficking across the nuclear divide to other neurodegenerative diseases—Alzheimer’s, Huntington, spinocerebellar ataxia—and even to normal aging. In all those ailments, the resulting abnormal pileups of proteins somehow become rogue neuronal killers.”I often get queasy when someone makes a discovery and tries to explain the rest of the world with it,” says Rothstein, a neurologist who directs the Johns Hopkins Brain Science Institute. But here, he says, it seems to be true.The findings are not merely academic. They are inspiring therapeutic efforts to address the cause of general age-related neurodegeneration—a goal that has largely eluded drug developers. If the gradual loss of nucleocytoplasmic transport is a conserved feature of the aging brain, says Sami Barmada, a neurologist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, preventing it “might be a really broad and effective therapy.”Several biotech companies have jumped on that idea, exploring it in animal models and planning the first human trials this year. Chief among them: Biogen in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which in 2018 bought the rights to develop a drug compound called KPT-350 that directly targets the nuclear transport pathway. The research underpinning that drug’s action is brand new. But, “The biology is there,” says Chris Henderson, head of neuromuscular and movement disorders research at Biogen. “Here’s a drug with a body of rationale,” he adds, “and we’re optimistic about getting this into trials.”Crossing the nuclear borderThe lipid membrane that divides the DNA-packed nucleus from the rest of the cell is like an international border busy with two-way industrial traffic. DNA-binding proteins and other molecules are constantly flowing into the nucleus to help turn genes on and off, for example. The messenger RNAs produced by those genes stream the other way, into the cytoplasm to protein-assembly platforms. The cell must regulate that traffic through entry points known as nuclear pores. Choke off those portals and it stands to reason cells will suffer.The first hints that disrupted nuclear transport might underpin ALS came in 2010, when researchers at King’s College London, working with human nerve cancer cells, experimentally blocked the expression of proteins involved in the import business. The result was something also seen in cells from ALS patients: clumps of a protein called TDP-43 building up in the cytoplasm.Few ALS researchers paid much attention to that early report. What might be gumming up the gears of the transport machinery in ALS patients wasn’t clear, and the researchers couldn’t say whether the buildup of TDP-43—a protein that normally binds both DNA and RNA inside the nucleus to regulate multiple steps in gene expression—was actually killing neurons or was just a consequence of a different toxic process. It would take another 5 years—and Lloyd’s and Rothstein’s study of the flies with telltale eyes—for ALS scientists to take nuclear transport more seriously. The compound eyes of the common fruit fly are normally brick red. But in neurologist Tom Lloyd’s lab at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, many of the fly eyes are pocked with white and black specks, a sign that neurons in each of their 800-odd eye units are shriveling away and dying.Those flies have the genetic equivalent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the debilitating neurodegenerative disorder also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, and their eyes offer a window into the soul of the disease process. By measuring the extent of damage to each insect’s eyes, researchers can quickly gauge whether a drug, genetic modification, or some other therapeutic intervention helps stop neuronal loss.Those eyes have also offered an answer to the central mystery of ALS: just what kills neurons—and, ultimately, the patient.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The flies carry a mutation found in about 40% of ALS patients who have a family history of the disease, and in about 10% of sporadic cases. The mutation, in a gene called C9orf72, consists of hundreds or thousands of extra copies of a short DNA sequence, just six bases long. They lead to unusually large strands of RNA that glom onto hundreds of proteins in the cell nucleus, putting them out of action. Some of those RNA-ensnared proteins, Lloyd and his Hopkins colleague Jeffrey Rothstein hypothesized, might hold the key to ALS.Over many months, the researchers systematically studied the role of each protein by developing fly strains carrying both the ALS mutation and an incapacitated or hyperactive version of each protein’s gene. One set of flies, bred to have elevated levels of a protein called RanGAP, stood out. Fifteen days after the flies emerged from their pupal casings, their eyes remained a pure burnt sienna. RanGAP “was by far the most potent suppressor of neurodegeneration,” Lloyd says. What was known about its function was tantalizing: It serves as a courier, helping shuttle other proteins across the membrane that divides the cell nucleus from the cytoplasm. For example, treatment with KPT-350 preserved the health of axons, the long, signal-transmitting extensions of nerve cells, and improved the motor functions of mice with a multiple sclerosis–like condition, a team led by neuroscientist Jeffery Haines at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City showed. And in the Hopkins group’s hands, the drug kept alive mouse neurons harboring the mutation associated with Huntington.”There’s still a lot that needs to be explored about why the nuclear pore complex is so susceptible to problems in different types of neurons in different brain regions causing multiple different diseases,” says Gavin Daigle, a former postdoc in Rothstein’s lab who worked on the Huntington project and helped link disrupted pore function to Alzheimer’s disease before joining AbbVie in Cambridge. But he stresses that all the research is showing one thing: “This is a pathway that can be targeted.”The results proved enough to convince Biogen, which bought the rights to test the drug in humans. “The package of preclinical data that Karyopharm was able to amass really justifies the excitement,” says Laura Fanning, R&D project leader for KPT-350 at Biogen (which has renamed the molecule BIIB100). “It’s not just a blip of efficacy in one strain of mice. It’s a broad base of evidence,” she says. A first-in-human dose-escalation study of KPT-350 could begin in ALS patients later this year. If the drug shows promise against that disease, Biogen may expand its clinical testing to other conditions, Henderson says.Moving into the clinicAlthough the drug seems to work in the laboratory, why or how is not at all clear. “The story started to get murkier as more data has come in,” notes Haines, now at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals in Tarrytown, New York. Initially, most scientists assumed that because it blocks XPO1, the drug prevents proteins such as TDP-43 from piling up in the cytoplasm by trapping them in the nucleus. But last year, Dormann’s team and another led by Philip Thomas, a biochemist at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, independently reported that TDP-43 and another protein called FUS seem to exit the nucleus by passive diffusion, not through XPO1-mediated transport. (FUS also clumps in the cytoplasm of motor neurons in some patients with ALS or FTD.)So if KPT-350 is not acting directly on the transport system, what is it doing? “It looks like the drug is targeting some more general neurotoxic pathway,” Dormann says, “but it remains to be clarified what the mechanism really is and which nuclear transport defects we’re correcting with this drug.”One possibility, recent research suggests, is that the drug actually targets tiny, dense packets of protein and RNA that form during times of cellular stress. In healthy cells, those membraneless “stress granules” generally break down and their components disperse after a viral infection, thermal shock, or some other environmental insult has passed. Not so in the diseased neurons of people with ALS or FTD. In those cells, the stress granules persist and turn sticky, recruiting proteins such as TDP-43 and FUS and eventually transforming into solid, toxic aggregates.Over the past year, several research teams have shown that components of the nuclear transport machinery—including importers, exporters, and parts of the nuclear pore itself—also can get tangled up in those aggregates. The transportation system falters, and as more TDP-43 and other proteins are added to the stress granules, a feedback loop takes hold that grinds the molecular traffic to a halt. “TDP-43 is not just a victim of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport defects,” says Wilfried Rossoll, a neuroscientist at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida. “It’s also a perpetrator.”In August 2018, findings from a study led by neurobiologist Ludo Van Den Bosch of VIB–Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium suggested that the transport protein XPO1 itself may play a role in stress granules. That means a drug such as KPT-350 may serve primarily as a stress granule buster, and any impact on transport may be secondary. “Things are more complicated than initially presented,” says Van Den Bosch, who has collaborated with Karyopharm.The open questions about KPT-350 have not discouraged other groups from pursuing additional strategies to sort out nuclear traffic problems. In 2017, for example, Guillaume Hautbergue and his colleagues at the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom implicated another export factor in the neuronal loss experienced by ALS flies with the C9orf72 mutation. Hautbergue is working on ways to target that protein to prevent the export of mutant RNAs produced by the gene.Other researchers are focusing on breaking up stress granules. That approach should free up transport factors and pore proteins held hostage in those granules, allowing them to return to their usual posts in the cell, explains James Shorter, a protein biochemist at the University of Pennsylvania. He is developing a way to equip cells with a gene for making a “disaggregase” protein and has begun to test the therapeutic strategy in a mouse model of ALS.A few drug companies, including Denali Therapeutics of South San Francisco, California, and Aquinnah Pharmaceuticals of Cambridge, are looking for small molecules that can do basically the same thing. Those therapies may not directly target the nuclear transport pathway, but they would get the job done, says Aquinnah co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer Ben Wolozin, a neuropharmacologist at Boston University’s School of Medicine, because dismantling stress granules helps restore healthy nuclear transport. “This is all part of an integrated biological response,” Wolozin says.Aquinnah hopes to begin to evaluate its lead compound in ALS patients this year, about the same time that Biogen is aiming to get KPT-350 into the clinic. For now, Biogen scientists are still trying to pin down what the drug is doing in various genetic models of the disease, including the flies with marred eyes. But to some extent, Henderson says, knowing the exact mechanism of action doesn’t really matter. “The relevant experiment,” he concludes, “is in the human patient.” The normal compound fly eye (left) is marred by cell death in a strain (right) with a mutation causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cytoplasm Stress granule H.OBERLEITHNER, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL OF MUENSTER/Science Source The Hopkins team’s result electrified colleagues in part because it had identified a transport protein, RanGAP, as key to neurodegeneration. The team showed in both the fly model of ALS and in cells from human patients that the lengthy RNA readouts produced by the mutant C9orf72 gene seemed to stick to RanGAP near the nuclear pore and put the protein out of commission. The loss of functioning RanGAP spurred a backup of the nuclear import system, resulting in the cytoplasmic buildup of proteins such as TDP-43—cluttering a cell like bags of rotting trash during a garbage strike.Just as galvanizing was the team’s finding that a potential drug could preserve neuronal health, at least in the flies. “All of a sudden it threw a potential treatment approach into the ring,” says Dorothee Dormann, a biochemist from Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, Germany.The team had no drug that could boost levels of RanGAP in the cytoplasm and restore enough inflow to rescue the eye neurons. But Lloyd reasoned that blocking outflow of TDP-43 and other nuclear proteins may have the same beneficial effect. An experimental compound called KPT-276 was known to selectively inhibit a key nuclear export protein called exportin 1 (XPO1). The approach was a hack of sorts, marrying two wrongs—defective inflow and outflow—to make a right, but it worked. When Lloyd gave KPT-276 to his ALS flies, their eyes remained pristine.From cancer fighter to brain protectorKPT is the experimental compound code used by Karyopharm Therapeutics, a small drug company in Newton, Massachusetts. Karyopharm formed in 2008 to develop XPO1 inhibitors for treating cancer, the idea being to trigger a buildup of tumor suppressor proteins in the nucleus, where they carry out their anticancer watchdog function. A decade on, the company’s first clinical candidate, a drug for multiple myeloma, is widely expected to win marketing approval in the coming months.Chemists at Karyopharm developed a suite of XPO1 inhibitors, including KPT-276 and a relative called KPT-350, that had an important attribute: They crossed the blood-brain barrier more readily than other candidates. KPT-350 proved more potent and less toxic in preclinical testing, so the firm looked for ways to use it to treat brain disease and injury.Lloyd’s and Rothstein’s results piqued the company’s interest. When Sharon Tamir, its head of neurodegenerative and infectious diseases at the time, learned that the Hopkins researchers were working with KPT-276 and not KPT-350, she called them up to propose a collaboration using the “better” compound. Meanwhile, she began to distribute KPT-350 to other groups in Japan, Belgium, and across the United States. Collectively, those scientists showed the drug’s neuroprotective effects across a range of human cell, fly, and rodent models of ALS, Huntington, and other brain diseases.last_img read more

Trump once again requests deep cuts in U.S. science spending

first_imgPresident Donald Trump There are a few modest bright spots. For example, the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) flagship competitive grants program, would get an $85 million increase, or 20%, to $500 million. Overall, however, USDA’s budget would be cut 15%, including an apparent 8% cut, to $1.2 billion, for the department’s Agricultural Research Service.Overall, White House officials say their goal is to cut spending on domestic and foreign aid programs by about 5% below this year’s levels while increasing military spending. At the same time, the administration says it wants to generally abide by a 2011 law that calls for reducing nondefense spending by 9% and defense spending by 11% in 2020, compared with this year’s spending.To meet those objectives while increasing defense spending, today’s request employs a number of accounting gimmicks that are likely to be rejected by Congress, setting the stage for another fight over revising the spending caps. Three similar battles in recent years have resulted in Congress and the White House increasing the caps, in some cases enabling substantial spending increases for many agencies that fund or conduct research.This year’s battle will begin in earnest this week, as spending panels in both the Senate and the House of Representatives are scheduled to begin to review the president’s request. Gage Skidmore/Flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0) For the third year in a row, President Donald Trump’s administration has unveiled a budget request to Congress that calls for deep spending cuts at many federal science agencies, including a 13% cut for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and a 12% cut for the National Science Foundation (NSF), while providing hefty increases for the military.But the $4.7 trillion request for the 2020 fiscal year that begins 1 October, released today, is already drawing bipartisan pushback from lawmakers in Congress and—as with past Trump administration requests—many of the cuts are unlikely to be enacted into law.The president’s science adviser, Kelvin Droegemeier, calls the request “an important down payment on America’s future.” A statement from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), which he leads, says the president’s budget “promotes responsible spending [by] prioritizing high-impact programs that have been shown to be effective.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) By Science News StaffMar. 11, 2019 , 12:15 PMcenter_img The OSTP statement cites artificial intelligence (AI), quantum information science, wireless 5G communications, and advanced manufacturing as administration priorities. It says the request would allocate $850 million for AI development and $430 million for quantum science across several agencies. But it’s impossible to tell whether that level of investment is higher or lower than current spending. What is clear, however, is that those investments would be part of a diminished federal research enterprise. The OSTP statement says the president’s 2020 request represents an overall federal investment of $134 billion in R&D. That figure, if enacted, would be 11% lower than the estimated $151.5 billion being spent this year on R&D.Rush Holt, CEO of AAAS (which publishes ScienceInsider) in Washington, D.C., says a reduction of that magnitude “would derail our nation’s science enterprise.” The president’s 2020 budget doesn’t match the administration’s rhetoric on the importance of research in preserving a healthy U.S. economy, says Holt, who calls on Congress to reverse the cuts, as it has done since Trump took office.Here are some highlights from the request:NIHThe request would slash NIH’s budget by $5 billion to $34.4 billion, a 13% cut.A new pediatric cancer initiative at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) would receive $50 million for drug discovery, studying the biology of pediatric cancers, and pooling data from cancer cases and existing data sets to “create a comprehensive, shared resource to support childhood cancer in all its forms.” The funding would begin a $500 million, decadelong pediatric cancer research effort that Trump proposed in his State of the Union address.But some researchers have expressed concern about focusing the initiative too heavily on data sharing. The advocacy community worries it will come at the expense of other pediatric cancer research and the overall NCI budget, which would fall 15% to $5.2 billion in the request.NIH’s Centers for AIDS Research would receive $6 million as part of Trump’s plan, announced in his State of the Union address, to reduce HIV infections by 90% over the next decade. The proposal would maintain this year’s level of $500 million for NIH’s 1-year-old Helping to End Addiction Long-Term Initiative to combat opioid addiction.Trump also wants to fold the stand-alone Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) into a new addition to NIH’s current 27 institutes, the National Institute for Research on Safety and Quality, which would receive $256 million. Congress has rejected past efforts by Trump to transfer AHRQ to NIH.Advocacy groups were disappointed by the proposed cut to NIH. The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Rockville, Maryland, warned that “the proposal threatens the progress of biomedical research.”NASANASA has the moon on its mind. Fresh from Congress largely supporting its plans to return to the moon, the White House’s request calls for delaying the heavier-lift version of its long-delayed rocket, the Space Launch System (SLS), repurposing that money to support its development of a small lunar-orbiting space station, now called the Lunar Gateway, and commercially developed landers.Overall, the agency’s proposed budget would drop 2.2% from this year’s enacted levels, with a more than 8% drop in its science portfolio. The request proposes canceling the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, as well as earth science missions, including the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem satellite and the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Pathfinder. Congress has blocked these proposed cuts in past budgets and seems likely to do so again.The budget would start work on the agency’s next mission to Mars, which would return samples collected by the Mars 2020 rover, launching next year. However, the proposal did not detail the dollars committed to such sample return. The budget also continues to fully fund the troubled James Webb Space Telescope, now set for a March 2021 launch. And, notably, the administration has given up trying to kill two earth science missions: the Earth-facing cameras on the Deep Space Climate Observatory and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-3, set for launch to the International Space Station next month.As it did last year, the White House has called for launching the Europa Clipper, its next flagship-level science mission, with a commercial rocket in 2023, rather than the SLS, as Congress has mandated. Launching on the SLS would knock nearly a half-decade off the trip to Jupiter, but would cost $700 million more, money that could be spent elsewhere. Similarly, the agency would slow development of the SLS’s planned upgrades, known as “Block 1B,” to instead support its lunar investments, including small commercial landers within the next few years and, by 2022, the launch of the Gateway’s first elements.Although Congress has supported the administration’s past moon plans, it remains to be seen how lawmakers, who have fended off many past budgetary attacks to the SLS, will react to the proposed delays.Other agenciesThe document the White House released today provides relatively few details about many agencies, and the administration has said it will issue the bulk of its spending plan on 18 March. Even then, it could be several additional weeks until the full scope of the administration’s proposal for specific agencies becomes clear.Today’s document, however, does include these nuggets: Trump once again requests deep cuts in U.S. science spending NSF would face a cut of roughly $1 billion, to $7.1 billion, a 12% reduction. At the Department of Energy, the Office of Science’s budget would shrink by roughly 17%, to $5.5 billion. The department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy would shrink by 86%, from $2.379 billion to $343 million. And the administration has again proposed eliminating the $366 million Advanced Research Projects Agency- Energy. Congress has rejected similar requests in the past. At the Environmental Protection Agency, the administration is again proposing to take an ax to climate and research programs. Overall, the agency’s budget would shrink by nearly one-third, from about $8.8 billion to $6.1 billion. Its science and technology programs would be funded at about $440 million, nearly 40% below the current level of $718 million. The budget line for air and energy research, which includes climate change science, would drop by more than $60 million, from about $95 million to $32 million. Congress has repeatedly rejected such proposed cuts. The National Institute of Standards and Technology would receive $688 million, down 30% from this year’s appropriation of $986 million. However, the administration once again wants to eliminate the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, a program popular with Congress, which this year received $140 million to bolster commercial activities. The Census Bureau would get $7.2 billion to complete the run-up to the decennial census in April 2020. That amount is in line with earlier outyear projections of what the bureau would need in the last year of its 10-year cycle, and slightly lower than a $7.4 billion figure issued by Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross in October 2017 that includes a 10% contingency fund.last_img read more

A mysterious disease is striking American beech trees

first_img By Gabriel PopkinNov. 14, 2019 , 3:00 PM Some researchers believe a nematode native to Asia is causing a deadly disease in American beech trees. A mysterious disease is striking American beech trees USDA/ARS/ELECTRON & CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY UNIT/LYNN CARTA/GARY BAUCHAN/CHRIS POOLEY/MYCOLOGY AND NEMATOLOGY GENETIC DIVERSITY AND BIOLOGY LABORATORY; COLORIZATION BY IT SPECIALIST/SOYBEAN GENOMICS AND IMPROVEMENT LABORATORY A mysterious disease is starting to kill American beeches, one of eastern North America’s most important trees, and has spread rapidly from the Great Lakes to New England. But scientists disagree about what is causing the ailment, dubbed beech leaf disease. Some have recently blamed a tiny leaf-eating worm introduced from Asia, but others are skeptical that’s the whole story.Regardless of their views, researchers say the outbreak deserves attention. “We’re dealing with something really unusual,” says Lynn Carta, a plant disease specialist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in Beltsville, Maryland.American beech (Fagus grandifolia), whose smooth gray trunks can resemble giant elephant legs, can grow to almost 40 meters tall. It is the fifth most common tree species in southern New England and in New York state—and the single most common tree in Washington, D.C. Its annual nut crop provides food for birds, squirrels, and deer.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Beeches in the United States were already struggling with a bark-infesting fungus when, in 2012, biologist John Pogacnik of Lake Metroparks, which manages natural areas in Ohio’s Lake County, spotted trees with leaves that were shriveled and had black stripes. By 2018, foresters had documented beeches with similar symptoms in 24 counties in eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and New York, and Canada’s Ontario province. Small trees with shriveled leaves were starting to die; on larger beeches, the symptoms crept up the tree toward leaves in the canopy. Worried foresters began to pry loose research funding from USDA and other agencies, and organized a meeting to discuss the disease in May 2018 in Parma, Ohio.There, plant pathologist David McCann, of the Ohio Department of Agriculture in Reynoldsburg, said he had found thousands of wriggling worms streaming from infected beech leaves. He sent Carta samples of the worms, which can be up to 2 millimeters long. Carta identified the worm as a subspecies of Litylenchus crenatae, a nematode that is found in beech trees in Asia but doesn’t kill them. The find was eye-opening, Carta says, because no leaf-eating nematode is known to infect a large forest tree in North America.Next, Carta, together with biologist David Burke of the Holden Arboretum in Kirtland, Ohio, and others, sought to verify Koch’s postulates—pathology’s gold standard for verifying a putative cause of a disease. The researchers took nematodes from diseased trees, pipetted them onto the buds of young, healthy trees in a greenhouse, then waited for symptoms to appear and reisolated the nematode from the affected leaves. The results of the experiment, which Carta presented at a conference in July and which have been accepted for publication in the journal Forest Pathology, indicate that “nematodes are causing beech leaf disease,” Burke says. “We feel like we’ve closed Koch’s postulates.”Enrico Bonello, a plant pathologist at Ohio State University in Columbus, is skeptical. He and a graduate student, Carrie Ewing, have ground up leaves from diseased and healthy looking beeches and then extracted fragments of DNA and RNA. They found nematode DNA in both healthy seeming and diseased trees. In diseased beeches, they also found evidence of three bacteria and three fungi not found in healthy looking trees. They don’t know whether any of the microbes sicken trees. But Bonello says the finding, which he plans to present at an upcoming conference, “raises questions” about the role of nematodes. Perhaps, he says, the worms are simply transmitting a microbial pathogen that is the disease’s true cause.Carta’s team, however, considers that scenario “highly unlikely.” She contends nematode feeding alone could sicken trees.Whatever its cause, beech leaf disease is getting around. Connecticut officials last month announced detections in Greenwich, Stamford, and New Canaan, on New York City’s doorstep. Diseased trees have also been found on Long Island in New York state, some 800 kilometers from the malady’s ground zero. Carta and others are investigating whether the nematode is being moved across the landscape by mites found on infected beech trees, or by birds.USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, the agency responsible for dealing with invasive tree killers, is helping study the disease. But it has held off on taking action to limit the disease until it knows more about the cause and how it spreads.The beech’s plight has dismayed forest experts, who are already reeling from an onslaught of introduced tree killers such as the emerald ash borer beetle that has eliminated millions of trees. “I think we should be alarmed,” says Robert Marra, a forest pathologist with the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven. “What’s going to be left in forests?”The beech may face additional threats. Earlier this year, U.S. Forest Service researchers announced they had found an undescribed beetle on stressed European beech trees in a New York City cemetery. The scientists are now studying whether the insect also has a taste for American beech.last_img read more

Dortmund lose duo for Inter

first_img Watch Serie A live in the UK on Premier Sports for just £11.99 per month including live LaLiga, Eredivisie, Scottish Cup Football and more. Visit: https://subscribe.premiersports.tv/ Borussia Dortmund will be without key duo Marco Reus and Paco Alcacer against Inter in the Champions League tomorrow. Alcacer has been out since the start of October with an Achilles injury, while Reus – who scored Dortmund’s winner at the weekend – is ruled out with flu. Joining the forwards on the sidelines at San Siro is experienced left-back Marcel Schmelzer. However, goalkeeper Roman Burki is passed fit after he was taken off against Borussia Monchengladbach with a suspected knee problem. The Germans will also be able to count on Jadon Sancho, the winger reinstated following his late return from England duty and subsequent exclusion. The Nerazzurri desperately need a win tomorrow after a draw and defeat in their first two Group F games, whereas their opponents are top with four points.last_img read more

De Zerbi: ‘Sassuolo not crafty enough’

first_img Watch Serie A live in the UK on Premier Sports for just £11.99 per month including live LaLiga, Eredivisie, Scottish Cup Football and more. Visit: https://subscribe.premiersports.tv/ Sassuolo coach Roberto De Zerbi explained some of his decisions after a stoppage-time 2-1 defeat to Lazio. “The second half was one of our best this season.” The Neroverdi were seemingly heading for a creditable draw until Lazio’s Felipe Caicedo scored the winner in stoppage time.  “We tried to play and create scoring opportunities, but to get into those positions, you need to get away from your marker. And to me we were missing this in the first half, but in the second half I liked our play, perhaps one of our better halves this season in terms of quality,” said De Zerbi in his press conference. Midfielder Manuel Locatelli was tasked with man-marking Lazio’s Lucas Leiva, but once Locatelli was taken off, the former Liverpool man exerted more control. “Locatelli was tired. To put [Alfred] Duncan or [Mehdi] Bourabia out on the wing would’ve been a mistake, as it would’ve freed up [Jordan] Lukaku and [Manuel] Lazzari. The changes I made were the one that best fit the characteristics of the players available. “Lazio scored a very shrewd goal. We are not a crafty side, but we have other qualities.” De Zerbi at 40 was the youngest coach in Serie A until he was overtaken by Thiago Motta, so is he pleased to see more young coaches in the league? “I’m a bit sorry,” he laughed. “I never agree when making the distinction between young and old, in general, and not just in football. I want to be ranked as good, not young or old.” Sassuolo travel to Turin to face Juventus next weekend.last_img read more

Kundra promoting unauthorised cricket: Modi

first_imgEven as suspended Indian Premier League (IPL) commissioner Lalit Modi battles the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), Headlines Today has got its hands on a series of e-mails that shows he has also been engaged in a war of words with Rajasthan Royals co-owner Raj Kundra.Kundra, along with the actress wife Shilpa Shetty, owns a stake in the IPL franchise Rajasthan Royals. Based on the e-mails Headlines Today has accessed, it was clear that Kundra met with the Australian and UAE cricket boards in April this year to discuss the possibility of cricket leagues similar to the IPL.In an April 8 mail, addressed to Rajasthan Royals major stakeholder Manoj Badale and Kundra, Modi wrote that one of the shareholders was promoting unauthorised cricket. Modi wrote that he has already repeatedly warned Kundra against doing so, but the latter was not heeding to it. Modi went on to say that he would take any action necessary to protect the interest of the IPL and all its stakeholders.Kundra’s initial reply to this accusatory email was an incredulous one. He wrote back almost immediately, asking Modi to define unauthorised cricket. He also wrote that he would certainly look at and listen to any lucrative offers and investment opportunity.But as the war of words got uglier, Badale had to step in. He wrote to Modi that Kundra did indeed attend a meeting in Dubai but that there would be no involvement in unauthorised cricket and that Modi would be kept in the loop at all times.advertisementIt is interesting however, that these emails have leaked out at a time when the suspended IPL commissioner has been trying to prove his allegiance to the IPL and his supposed tough stance on unauthorised cricket. The BCCI’s second show cause notice issued to Modi had accused him of trying to start a rebel league in England.last_img read more

Kalmadi unveils CWG medals, hopes windfall for Indians

first_imgOrganising Committee Chairman Suresh Kalmadi on Friday unveiled the victory medallions for the Commonwealth Games and hoped that Indian athletes would lay their hands on most of them during the October 3-14 multi-sporting event in New Delhi.”I hope that majority of these wonderful medals would be bagged by the Indian athletes during the Games. I think our athletes may get up to 70 medals this year,” Kalmadi said after unveiling the medals.”Prime Minister has given Rs 700 crore for training of athletes and I am very confident that will reflect in India’s medal tally,” said Kalmadi.The 1408 medals – 272 gold, as many silver and 282 bronze – at a cost of Rs 81,08,566 have been made by the government of India mint in Kolkata and the design has been approved by the Commonwealth Games Federation.The mint was entrusted with the design, development and manufacture of the medals, for which initially four designs were recommended.The front of the medal has the Commonwealth Games 2010 Delhi logo and the dates, while the reverse side bears emblem of the CGF. The lanyard of the medals carry all the six Games colours – pink, purple, green, red, yellow and blue – blending into each other.The cost of production of each gold medal was Rs 5,539, while every silver and bronze medal would be procured for Rs 4,818 and Rs 4,529 respectively, said OC Secretary General Lalit Bhanot, who was also present.Every medal is six millimeter thick with a diameter of 63.5 millimeter. The signature element’s starting fin is raised by one millimeter and it rises up to three millimeter on the last fin. The embossed logo and date is raised by a millimeter.advertisementManufacture of the medals was in full swing.Kalmadi informed that the first hearing on the suspension of M Jaychandran, who was the OC Joint Director General (Accounts and Finance) at the time Queen’s Baton Relay in October last year, was held at OC headquarters here.”Yes, the first hearing of Mr Jaychandran took place today. But the result would not be known so soon, the process would take some time,” said Kalmadi, also the President of the Indian Olympic Association.Jaychandran was among the three tainted high-ranked officers suspended by the OC’s all-powerful Executive Board yesterday following allegations of financial irregularities during the QBR in London.Meanwhile, Bhanot said that the OC has already taken over 11 venues and hoped most of the stadiums would be under their control by the weekend.”So far we have taken over 11 stadiums under some terms and conditions. I hope we would get most of the stadiums by the weekend,” Bhanot said.Kalmadi reiterated that all the venues of the Games would be world-class.”I am sure that all the venues would be in good condition. If there is any problem in any section of the venues, we will send a written notice to those who are responsible for the construction,” said Kalmadi.”I assure you all that all the clearances will be taken and the venues would be tip-top during the Games,” he added.last_img read more

After Game 2 meltdown, Blue Eagles need ‘laser focus’ in do-or-die

first_imgSports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Thirdy Ravena. Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netAfter squandering what could’ve been a title-clinching win, Ateneo now has no other choice but to face defending champion De La Salle in a do-or-die Game 3 in the UAAP Season 80 men’s basketball finals.And Thirdy Ravena knows they can’t miss a beat.ADVERTISEMENT MRT 7 on track for partial opening in 2021 Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ “We have to stay laser-focused on the third game, we have to be aware that that’s going to happen and we have to be prepared for that situation when that comes in,” said Ravena Wednesday at Smart Araneta Coliseum.What Ravena was talking about was the Blue Eagles’ wasted 21-point lead against the Green Archers in Game 2, wherein an Ateneo win could’ve draped the trophy in blue-and-white ribbons.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingAteneo held a 45-24 lead in the second quarter after Ravena made two free throws, but the Green Archers mounted a 40-10 run that spanned the two middle periods to take a 68-59 lead heading into the fourth.The Blue Eagles never recovered as the Green Archers tied the series at 1-1 after a 92-83 win with the decider scheduled on Sunday. Jordan delivers on promise: 2 Cobra choppers now in PH MOST READ NBA: Steph Curry says he can ‘sort of relate’ to Lonzo Ball The Fatted Calf and Ayutthaya: New restos worth the drive to Tagaytay Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Malditas save PH from shutout “I think we didn’t take that situation [blowing the 21-point lead] well,” said Ravena who had 20 points, six rebounds, and four assists. “We have to realize that when they make those runs we have to play at the same level or even higher. We can’t just keep on doing what we’re doing with La Salle making that run.”“It was a real lesson for us that it’s not over until it’s over, we had a 20-point lead but we got complacent. And when they starting catching up we weren’t tough enough to take on that situation.” Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim View comments After 30 years, Johnlu Koa still doing ‘hard-to-make’ quality breads Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. ‘A complete lie:’ Drilon refutes ‘blabbermouth’ Salo’s claims For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. LATEST STORIESlast_img read more